The Gayatri mantra first appeared in the Rig Veda, an early Vedic text written between 1800 and 1500 BCE. … The mantra is a hymn to Savitur, the sun god. According to Brooks, the sun in the mantra represents both the physical sun and the Divine in all things. It is a sacred chant that demonstrates the unity that underlies manifoldness in creation.
ॐभूर्भुवःस्वः तत्सवितुर्वरेण्यं भर्गोदेवस्यधीमहि धियोयोनःप्रचोदयात् ॥ Om Bhuur-Bhuvah Svah
Bhargo Devasya Dhiimahi
Dhiyo Yo Nah Prachodayaat ||
Meaning: 1:Om, Pervading the Bhu Loka (Earth, Consciousness of the Physical Plane), Bhuvar Loka (Antariksha, The Intermediate Space, Consciousness of Prana) and Swar Loka (Sky, Heaven, Consciousness of the Divine Mind), 2:That Savitur (Savitri, Divine Essence of the Sun) which is the most Adorable, 3:I Meditate on that Divine Effulgence, 4: May that Awaken our Intelligence (Spiritual Consciousness).
Gayatri Mantra Powerful produced 110,000 sound waves per second. This was the highest and was found to be the most powerful hymn in the world. Though the combination of sound or sound waves of a particular frequency, the Mantra is claimed capable of developing specific spiritual potentialities.
One should chant Gayatri mantra three times a day. We should always focus to pronounce the Mantra precisely for greater efficacy, since it is veda mantra. This Mantra is given an utmost place among all mantras.
This module is suitable for everybody – beginners, advanced students or teachers – wishing to acquire precise knowledge of this fundamental text. The Yoga Sutra-s present the subtlest workings of the human being, from our deepest suffering to our highest spiritual possibilities.
The first chapter of Patanjali’s Yoga Sutras is about enlightenment – Samadhi Pada
Samadhi(समाधि, Samādhi) = Enlightenment Pada(पाद, Pāda) = ChapterThe first chapter of the Yoga Sutra by Patanjali
Yoga-Sutra 2 – Sadhana Pada: about the Practice
The second Chapter of Patanjali’s Yoga Sutras – contains instructions for our Practice – Sadhana Pada.
तपः स्वाध्यायेश्वरप्रणिधानानि क्रियायोगः ॥१॥ tapaḥ svādhyāy-eśvarapraṇidhānāni kriyā-yogaḥ ॥1॥
Practice characterized by rigor and vigilance toward itself, without attachment to the outcome, is known as kriya yoga. ||1||
समाधिभावनार्थः क्लेश तनूकरणार्थश्च ॥२॥ samādhi-bhāvana-arthaḥ kleśa tanū-karaṇa-arthaś-ca ॥2॥
If your practice is aligned with your goal (samadhi), the obstacles along your spiritual path (klesha) will disappear and ultimately you will reach your goal. ||2||
अविद्याअस्मितारागद्वेषाभिनिवेशः क्लेशाः ॥३॥ avidyā-asmitā-rāga-dveṣa-abhiniveśaḥ kleśāḥ ॥3॥
The obstacles along the spiritual path (klesha) are as follows: a lack of insight (avidya); identification with the mutable (asmita); the belief that happiness (raga) or unhappiness (dvesha) result from outer circumstances; deep seated anxiety (abinivesha). ||3||
अविद्या क्षेत्रमुत्तरेषाम् प्रसुप्ततनुविच्छिन्नोदाराणाम् ॥४॥ avidyā kṣetram-uttareṣām prasupta-tanu-vicchinn-odārāṇām ॥4॥
A lack of insight (avidya) is the source of most kleshas (obstacles) and can be latent, incipient, full fledged or overwhelming. ||4||
अनित्याअशुचिदुःखानात्मसु नित्यशुचिसुखाअत्मख्यातिरविद्या ॥५॥ anityā-aśuci-duḥkha-anātmasu nitya-śuci-sukha-ātmakhyātir-avidyā ॥5॥
A combination of the eternal and transitory, purity and impurity, joy and suffering, or the mutable and immutable in human beings are all referred to as a lack of insight (avidya). ||5||
दृग्दर्शनशक्त्योरेकात्मतैवास्मिता ॥६॥ dr̥g-darśana-śaktyor-ekātmata-iva-asmitā ॥6॥
Confusing the immutable core with the transient shell is referred to as identification with the mutable (asmita). ||6||
सुखानुशयी रागः ॥७॥ sukha-anuśayī rāgaḥ ॥7॥
The presumption that happiness depends on external circumstances is referred to as desire (raga). ||7||
दुःखानुशयी द्वेषः ॥८॥ duḥkha-anuśayī dveṣaḥ ॥8॥
The notion that pain and suffering are caused by external circumstances is referred to as aversion (dvesha). ||8||
स्वरस्वाहि विदुषोऽपि समारूढोऽभिनिवेशः ॥९॥ svarasvāhi viduṣo-‘pi samārūḍho-‘bhiniveśaḥ ॥9॥
Anxiety (abhinivesha) arises spontaneously and can even dominate your entire existence. ||9||
ते प्रतिप्रसवहेयाः सूक्ष्माः ॥१०॥ te pratiprasava-heyāḥ sūkṣmāḥ ॥10॥
This burden (klesha) should be nipped in the bud. || 10||
ध्यान हेयाः तद्वृत्तयः ॥११॥ dhyāna heyāḥ tad-vr̥ttayaḥ ॥11॥
Medidating (dhyana) on that which we wish to overcome eliminates such misconceptions that arise from human mutability (vritti). ||11|
क्लेशमूलः कर्माशयो दृष्टादृष्टजन्मवेदनीयः ॥१२॥ kleśa-mūlaḥ karma-aśayo dr̥ṣṭa-adr̥ṣṭa-janma-vedanīyaḥ ॥12॥
Obstacles (kleshas) are the breeding ground for tendencies that give rise to actions and the consequences (karma) thereof. Such obstacles are experienced as visible or invisible obstacles. ||12||
सति मूले तद्विपाको जात्यायुर्भोगाः ॥१३॥ sati mūle tad-vipāko jāty-āyur-bhogāḥ ॥13॥
The outcome of these circumstances is manifested by a person’s station in life, longevity, and the extent to which they achieve happiness. ||13||
ते ह्लाद परितापफलाः पुण्यापुण्यहेतुत्वात् ॥१४॥ te hlāda paritāpa-phalāḥ puṇya-apuṇya-hetutvāt ॥14॥
The outcome of an action is felicitous or infelicitous depending on whether the foundation is successful or unsuccessful. ||14||
परिणाम ताप संस्कार दुःखैः गुणवृत्तिविरोधाच्च दुःखमेव सर्वं विवेकिनः ॥१५॥ pariṇāma tāpa saṁskāra duḥkhaiḥ guṇa-vr̥tti-virodhācca duḥkham-eva sarvaṁ vivekinaḥ ॥15॥
Suffering is caused by change in the outside world, as well as impressions, desires (samsakra), misconceptions (vritti) and conflict. Suffering is omnipresent for those who have the capacity to differentiate. ||15||
हेयं दुःखमनागतम् ॥१६॥ heyaṁ duḥkham-anāgatam ॥16॥
But future suffering can be avoided. ||16||
द्रष्टृदृश्ययोः संयोगो हेयहेतुः ॥१७॥ draṣṭr̥-dr̥śyayoḥ saṁyogo heyahetuḥ ॥17॥
For identificaiton of the true self (drashtu) with that which is mutable is the cause of suffering. ||17||
प्रकाशक्रियास्थितिशीलं भूतेन्द्रियाअत्मकं भोगापवर्गार्थं दृश्यम् ॥१८॥ prakāśa-kriyā-sthiti-śīlaṁ bhūtendriya-ātmakaṁ bhoga-apavarga-arthaṁ dr̥śyam ॥18॥
Objects and situations in the physical world can be characterized by purity (sattva), unrest (rajas), or inertia (tamas); they are physical or etheric and result in short term pleasure or long term redemption ||18||
विशेषाविशेषलिङ्गमात्रालिङ्गानि गुणपर्वाणि ॥१९॥ viśeṣa-aviśeṣa-liṅga-mātra-aliṅgāni guṇaparvāṇi ॥19॥
Physical objects exhibit the following states: determinable; unspecific; symbolic; beyond symbols ||19||
द्रष्टा दृशिमात्रः शुद्धोऽपि प्रत्ययानुपश्यः ॥२०॥ draṣṭā dr̥śimātraḥ śuddho-‘pi pratyaya-anupaśyaḥ ॥20॥
Only the true self (drashtu) sees; it is immutable, although seeing is based on accurate perception. ||20||
तदर्थ एव दृश्यस्याअत्मा ॥२१॥ tadartha eva dr̥śyasya-ātmā ॥21॥
Physical objects can only be deemed to such if perceived by the true self (atma) ||21||
कृतार्थं प्रतिनष्टंअप्यनष्टं तदन्य साधारणत्वात् ॥२२॥ kr̥tārthaṁ pratinaṣṭaṁ-apy-anaṣṭaṁ tadanya sādhāraṇatvāt ॥22॥
Once an object has fulfilled its purpose, it does not disappear but instead remains in existence as such for others; for the object is valid for all. ||22||
स्वस्वामिशक्त्योः स्वरूपोप्लब्धिहेतुः संयोगः ॥२३॥ svasvāmi-śaktyoḥ svarūp-oplabdhi-hetuḥ saṁyogaḥ ॥23॥
The sole purpose of linking the mutable with the extant is to recognize the true enduring form. ||23||
तस्य हेतुरविद्या ॥२४॥ tasya hetur-avidyā ॥24॥
The root cause of identification with the mutable is a lack of insight (avidya). ||24||
तदभाबात्संयोगाभावो हानं तद्दृशेः कैवल्यम् ॥२५॥ tad-abhābāt-saṁyoga-abhāvo hānaṁ taddr̥śeḥ kaivalyam ॥25॥
When a lack of insight (avidya) disappears, this identification likewise disappears. Once this identification has completely disappeared, liberation (kaivalya) of the true self (drashtu) has occurred. ||25||
विवेकख्यातिरविप्लवा हानोपायः ॥२६॥ viveka-khyātir-aviplavā hānopāyaḥ ॥26॥
The capacity to make distinctions (viveka) and uninterrupted insight are the path to this goal. ||26||
तस्य सप्तधा प्रान्तभूमिः प्रज्ञ ॥२७॥ tasya saptadhā prānta-bhūmiḥ prajña ॥27॥
This path to insight has seven steps. ||27||
योगाङ्गानुष्ठानादशुद्धिक्षये ज्ञानदीप्तिराविवेकख्यातेः ॥२८॥ yoga-aṅga-anuṣṭhānād-aśuddhi-kṣaye jñāna-dīptir-āviveka-khyāteḥ ॥28॥
Through practice of these limbs of yoga, impurity is overcome and wisdom and an enduring capacity to make disinctions are achieved. ||28||
यम नियमाअसन प्राणायाम प्रत्याहार धारणा ध्यान समाधयोऽष्टावङ्गानि ॥२९॥ yama niyama-āsana prāṇāyāma pratyāhāra dhāraṇā dhyāna samādhayo-‘ṣṭāvaṅgāni ॥29॥
The limbs of the eight-fold path are as follows: respect for others (yama) and yourself (niyama); harmony with your body (asana), your energy (pranayama), your thoughts (dharana), and your emotions (pratyahara); contemplation (dhyana); ecstasy (samadhi). ||29||
अहिंसासत्यास्तेय ब्रह्मचर्यापरिग्रहाः यमाः ॥३०॥ ahiṁsā-satya-asteya brahmacarya-aparigrahāḥ yamāḥ ॥30॥
Respect for others (yama) is based on non-violence (ahimsa); truthfulness (satya); not stealing (asteya); non-covetousness (aparigraha); and acting with an awareness of higher ideals (brahma-charya). ||30||
जातिदेशकालसमयानवच्छिन्नाः सार्वभौमामहाव्रतम् ॥३१॥ jāti-deśa-kāla-samaya-anavacchinnāḥ sārvabhaumā-mahāvratam ॥31॥
Showing respect for others without regard for social station, or for place, time, or circumstance in all spheres of this respect is a great virtue. ||31||
शौच संतोष तपः स्वाध्यायेश्वरप्रणिधानानि नियमाः ॥३२॥ śauca saṁtoṣa tapaḥ svādhyāy-eśvarapraṇidhānāni niyamāḥ ॥32॥
Cleanliness (shaucha), contentment (santosha), self-discipline (tapas), learning from yourself (svadhyaya) and accepting your fate (iishvara-pranidhana) automatically translate into the practice of respect (niyama). ||32||
वितर्कबाधने प्रतिप्रक्षभावनम् ॥३३॥ vitarka-bādhane pratiprakṣa-bhāvanam ॥33॥
Uncertainty concerning implementation can be overcome via orientation with the reverse. ||33||
वितर्का हिंसादयः कृतकारितानुमोदिता लोभक्रोधमोहाअपूर्वका मृदुमध्य अधिमात्रा दुःखाज्ञानानन्तफला इति प्रतिप्रक्षभावनम् ॥३४॥ vitarkā hiṁsādayaḥ kr̥ta-kārita-anumoditā lobha-krodha-moha-āpūrvakā mr̥du-madhya adhimātrā duḥkha-ajñāna-ananta-phalā iti pratiprakṣa-bhāvanam ॥34॥
Violent thoughts (himsa) induce unending suffering and ignorance. In such cases, it makes no difference whether you’re the perpetrator, the person who gives the orders, or the instigator; or whether the thoughts are provoked by greed, anger, or delusion; or whether small, medium or large scale action is involved. This is why orienting yourself toward the reverse is helpful. ||34||
अहिंसाप्रतिष्ठायं तत्सन्निधौ वैरत्याघः ॥३५॥ ahiṁsā-pratiṣṭhāyaṁ tat-sannidhau vairatyāghaḥ ॥35॥
Once a condition of durable non-violence (ahimsa) has been established, all enmity will be abandoned in your environs. ||35||
सत्यप्रतिष्थायं क्रियाफलाअश्रयत्वम् ॥३६॥ satya-pratiṣthāyaṁ kriyā-phala-āśrayatvam ॥36॥
Once a state of truth (satya) has been permanently established, each statement will form the basis for a truthful result. ||36||
अस्तेयप्रतिष्ठायां सर्वरत्नोपस्थानम् ॥३७॥ asteya-pratiṣṭhāyāṁ sarvaratn-opasthānam ॥37॥
Once non-stealing has been permanently established, all riches will be available. ||37||
ब्रह्मचर्य प्रतिष्ठायां वीर्यलाभः ॥३८॥ brahma-carya pratiṣṭhāyāṁ vīrya-lābhaḥ ॥38॥
Performing each action with an awareness of a higher ideal (brahma-charya) engenders tremendous strength. ||38||
अपरिग्रहस्थैर्ये जन्मकथंता संबोधः ॥३९॥ aparigraha-sthairye janma-kathaṁtā saṁbodhaḥ ॥39॥
The permanent reign of non-covetousness (aparigraha) engenders knowledge concerning the goal of earthly life. ||39||
शौचात् स्वाङ्गजुगुप्सा परैरसंसर्गः ॥४०॥ śaucāt svāṅga-jugupsā parairasaṁsargaḥ ॥40॥
Purity (shaucha) results in the abandonment of physicality and the cessation of physical contact with external things. ||40||
सत्त्वशुद्धिः सौमनस्यैकाग्र्येन्द्रियजयाअत्मदर्शन योग्यत्वानि च ॥४१॥ sattva-śuddhiḥ saumanasya-ikāgry-endriyajaya-ātmadarśana yogyatvāni ca ॥41॥
Also the capacity for clarity, cleanliness, cheerfulness and intentness, as well as mastery over the senses, ultimately give rise to self realization. ||41||
संतोषातनुत्तमस्सुखलाभः ॥४२॥ saṁtoṣāt-anuttamas-sukhalābhaḥ ॥42॥
An attitude of contentment (santosha) gives rise to unexcelled happiness, mental comfort, joy, and satisfaction. ||42||
कायेन्द्रियसिद्धिरशुद्धिक्षयात् तपसः ॥४३॥ kāyendriya-siddhir-aśuddhi-kṣayāt tapasaḥ ॥43॥
Through self discipline (tapas), mental impurities are destroyed and the body and senses take on supernatural powers. ||43||
स्वाध्यायादिष्टदेवता संप्रयोगः ॥४४॥ svādhyāyād-iṣṭa-devatā saṁprayogaḥ ॥44॥
Self-study and reflection on yourself (svadhyaya) brings you into contact with the desired ideal. ||44||
समाधि सिद्धिःईश्वरप्रणिधानात् ॥४५॥ samādhi siddhiḥ-īśvarapraṇidhānāt ॥45॥
By accepting your fate (ishvarapranidhana), you achieve self knowledge (samadhi) and supernatural power (siddhi). ||45||
स्थिरसुखमासनम् ॥४६॥ sthira-sukham-āsanam ॥46॥
Practicing yoga with strength and in a relaxed manner gives rise to harmony with the physical body (asana). ||46||
प्रयत्नशैथिल्यानन्तसमापत्तिभ्याम् ॥४७॥ prayatna-śaithilya-ananta-samāpatti-bhyām ॥47॥
The key to success in this regard is practice with effort, which becomes progressively easier, combined with deep contemplation (samapatti). ||47||
ततो द्वङ्द्वानभिघातः ॥४८॥ tato dvaṅdva-an-abhighātaḥ ॥48॥
This results in a victory over the duality of life. ||48||
तस्मिन् सति श्वासप्रश्वास्योर्गतिविच्छेदः प्राणायामः ॥४९॥ tasmin sati śvāsa-praśvāsyor-gati-vicchedaḥ prāṇāyāmaḥ ॥49॥
Once harmony with the physical body has been achieved, through interruption of the movement engendered by inhaling and exhaling you attempt to harmonize your energy (pranayama). ||49||
बाह्याअभ्यन्तरस्थम्भ वृत्तिः देशकालसन्ख्याभिः परिदृष्टो दीर्घसूक्ष्मः ॥५०॥ bāhya-ābhyantara-sthambha vr̥ttiḥ deśa-kāla-sankhyābhiḥ paridr̥ṣṭo dīrgha-sūkṣmaḥ ॥50॥
Exhalation, inhalation, retention, technique, time and number must be very precisely regulated over a lengthy period. ||50||
बाह्याअभ्यन्तर विषयाक्षेपी चतुर्थः ॥५१॥ bāhya-ābhyantara viṣaya-akṣepī caturthaḥ ॥51॥
The fourth pranayama technique ultimately transcends breath retention after exhaling or inhaling. ||51||
ततः क्षीयते प्रकाशाअवरणम् ॥५२॥ tataḥ kṣīyate prakāśa-āvaraṇam ॥52॥
The veil covering the light of the true self then vanishes.
धारणासु च योग्यता मनसः ॥५३॥ dhāraṇāsu ca yogyatā manasaḥ ॥53॥
And the mind develops the capacity for harmony with thoughts (dharana). ||53||
स्वविषयासंप्रयोगे चित्तस्य स्वरूपानुकारैवेन्द्रियाणां प्रत्याहारः ॥५४॥ svaviṣaya-asaṁprayoge cittasya svarūpānukāra-iv-endriyāṇāṁ pratyāhāraḥ ॥54॥
Harmony with the emotions (pratyahara) is achieved when the senses cease to be engaged with external objects and thus that which is mutable in human beings (chitta) becomes similar to true nature. ||54||
ततः परमावश्यता इन्द्रियाणाम् ॥५५॥ tataḥ paramā-vaśyatā indriyāṇām ॥55॥
Thus do you gain supreme mastery of your senses. ||55||
Yoga-Sutra 3 – Vibhuti Pada: about the results
The third chapter of Patanjali’s Yoga Sutras instructs us about the progression of our practice – Vibhuti Pada.
Yoga-Sutra 4 – Kaivalya Pada: about Liberation
Finally, the fourth chapter of Patanjali’s Yoga Sutra is about liberation – Kaivalya Pada.
Kurmasana or Tortoise Pose is a yoga asana. Sanskrit: कूर्मासन; Kurma – Tortoise, Asana – Pose; Pronounced as: Koohr-Mah-Sah-Nah.
Kurmasana or the Tortoise Pose resembles a tortoise that withdraws into its shell when threatened or agitated. The name comes from the Sanskrit words ‘kurma’ meaning tortoise and ‘asana’ meaning pose. Practicing the Kurmasana enables you to draw inward and cut out the clutter of the outside world. It will give you a euphoric feeling of connecting with your inner world.
How To Do Kurmasana (Tortoise Pose)
You can assume Kurmasana in four steps.
Sit down with your legs spread out and back erect. Place your arms alongside your hips. Keep your legs arms’ distance apart and press your thighs into the ground. Raise your chest and take a few deep breaths.
Bend your knees and bring your feet closer to your hips. Stretch your arms forward in between the legs and bend your torso down and forward along with the arms.
Bend your knees further to facilitate your shoulders to go beneath your knees. Then, shift your stretched arms to the sides. Now, bring your thighs inwards and through them, apply pressure on your shoulders to bring your face and chest forward and down. Straighten your legs and make sure your inner thighs touch your side ribs.
Bring down your head with your chin touching the ground, and gaze downwards. Extend your arms sidewards as much as you can. Relax and breath deeply. Hold the pose for a few seconds. Relax.
Supta Kurmasana is the twenty-first pose of the primary series, and the sixteenth seated pose. This is the third pose of what is often called the “apex” of the Primary series—five challenging asana in the middle of the sequence.
Supta Kurmasana is the deepest forward fold of the Primary series. It has several manifestations. The first two forms described here can be perfected during the course of learning the Primary series. The final form, with both legs crossed behind the head, is best added after some degree of competency has been gained with the Intermediate series. Inability to put the legs behind the head should not be a bar or disqualification to learning the full Primary series and beginning practice of the Intermediate.